Paragraphes anglais

BAC Sciences-Exp
Accueil Cours
Smoking Brain drain Prize Winners Video games Against space exploration For space exploration Rubbish Pollusion Internet Natural disaster War TV Human rights Glovalisation Racism


Smoking is a very hazardous habit , the problem is that this behaviour became very commun specially amoung kids and teenagers. Nowadays, a lot of msurments are taken to limit this habit and for exemple : smoking is banned in a lot of public places.
Smoking is the main reason of lung cancer according to ”Action on Smoking and Health (ASH)”.
Smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death globally.
Devastating health and economic impact on people and communities around the globe.
Male and female smokers lose an average of 13.2 and 14.5 years of life, respectively.
Among the diseases that can be caused by smoking are vascular stenosis, lung cancer, heart attacks etc …
Tobacco costs heavy smokers a lot of money.
With a good spirit, smokers could stop this practice once and for all.
Follwing a good diet and practicing a lot of exercices is the ideal solution for quitting this bad habit.
Discovering the nature and spending times in open air is also good for a healthy body without tobacco.
Enjoying good times with friends can make you forget about cigaretts.
Smoking is one of the most common forms of recreational drug use. And this kind of addiction is so easy to quit. Determination is the essential factor of quitting Smoking.

Brain drain:

Brain drain is defined as the migration of skilled human resources for trade, education, etc. Young, well-educated, healthy individuals are most likely to migrate, especially in pursuit of higher education and economic improvement. The phenomenon of brain drain appeard in the 1960s. Nowadays, this type of migration became very commun and sometimes it is considered as a global issue.
The brain drain is a gain for the developing nations: both developed and developing countries can mutually profit: due to the aging population in developed countries. These countries suffer from labour in developing countrie. As for developing countries. They will benefit from the money that the immigrants send home.
The brain drain is a loss for the dveloping countries: the future of many poor countries is built upon the talents of their educated children. If a large number of these highly educated people leave the country, the investment in education in these countries may be futile.
# Benefits of brain :
– Improve financial conditions.
– Aquire more skills.
– Send money to their poor families.
– Bring home: expertise, skills a hopes.
– Filling key positions in their countries of origin.
# Drawbacks of brain drain:
– More poverty in the native countries.
– Skill shortages.
– Loss of hopes and expertise.
– To impede the economic growth.
– Less opportunities for development.
If a large number of highly-educated people in developing countries immigrate, investment in education may be fruitless and such an immigration may result in a slow economic growth.Improving educational opportunities aims at reducing specific skill shortages, if measures are not taken to encourage people to stay in their countries, the shortage of skills will be much more important and the efforts made to avoid such shortages may be useless.

Prize Winners:

Since the begining of time humans have been developing, inventing and progressing on so many levels in pursuit of improving their lives!
Great men and women are quite creative in severl field: science, technology, inventions etc…
Worldwide famous prizes are awarded to the most creative people every year.
The most known prize is the Noble prize and it is considered the most prestigious one.
It has been honoring outstanding people from all around the world since 1901. Alfred Nobel was the man behind it.
He was a scientist, inventor and author. He left much of his wealth to the establishment of the Noble prize.
Najib Mahfoudh the egyptian author won this prize in literature in 1988 and The Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet in peace in 2015.
There are a lot of other prizes that honor people who do best in their fields.
We can mention The World Innovation Summit for Education (WISE) is an international initiative aimed at transforming education through innovation.
WISE was established by Qatar Foundation in 2009 under the patronage of its chairperson, Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser. With an annual Summit held in Doha, and a range of year-round initiatives, WISE’s mission revolves around promoting new approaches to education and investigating ways to manage education challenges.
In the pursuit of innovation , men challenge themselves to reach their goals and aim to help humanity and these kind of prizes are an other motivation for them.

Video games:

Nowadays, we are living in a world that it’s technological development is so fast. It is normal that a lot of cool gadgets are invented every single day.
One of the most known invention are video games. They are so commun all around the world. More students in my school spend many hours a day playing video games.
No one can deny how creative and fun those games are, and so adictive. Some people consider them as a way to enhance immagination for kids.
But in the other way , it is also considered as a huge harm, it takes practically all the time. The time teenagers spend on palying games should’ve been used in a more beneficial way. Also others neglect their homework for these games witch is not acceptable. Children spend a lot of money buying play stations and x-box and games, that amount of money could’ve been spent with more efficiency.
Video games are also harmful for health, focusing for long periode of time on the screen is bad for the child’s eys.
Addicting this kind of games has another bad effect, it destroys our social relations. It forces children to quit enjoying time with family and friends, he only find the joy in that virtual univers.
Children should avoid this kind of distruction. They should know how to devide their time a part for homework, other for physical exercices and spending time with friends and family. Participating in groups like sports groups or art ones is also very intresting, it keeps you away from the habit of video games and it is good for bulding a strong charecter and showing the best version of you Playing video games is fun , but it’s addictive. It is good to play sometimes but is bad to play it all day long.

Against space exploration:

Space exploration is the investigation of physical conditions in space and on stars, planets, and other celestial bodies through the solar system.
While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, the physical exploration of space is mainly made both by robotic probes and human spaceflights.
Although the scientific reason behind this exploration is marvelous with all the benifits it can provide us with, Space exploration can have a negative impact on the environment.
When rockets launch into space, their engines let out gases and debris such as aluminum oxide and soot. These substances can damage the ozone layer and contribute to global warming.As space exploration becomes more commonplace, scientists must tackle environmental issues associated with rocket launches.
In addition to gases and particles, man-made objects often get left behind in the earth’s orbit. There are over 500,000 pieces of orbital debris in orbit, according to NASA. Orbital debris includes broken spacecraft, pieces of launch vehicles, pieces of spacecraft and satellites that break off during explosions, pieces of paint and used batteries. Orbital debris does not significantly affect the earth itself, but it does pose a small risk to astronauts working in space. The U.S. and other countries such as Russia and China have guidelines in place to reduce orbital debris.
Space exploration can have negative health consequences to astronauts. Zero gravity conditions can cause bones to release less calcium, causing them to become brittle. Radiation can also impact bones. Floating also causes back and lower body muscles to become weaker, as they are not used in the same way.
In addition, space exploration can cause changes to the body’s balance system and inner clock. Astronauts must undergo a period of adjustment after returning to Earth.

For space exploration:

Space exploration is the ongoing discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of continuously evolving and growing space technology. While the study of space is carried out mainly by astronomers with telescopes, the physical exploration of space is conducted both by unmanned robotic probes and human spaceflight.
something good about space travel is that it increases our knowledge about outer space and our own planet. Also, If we find a habitable world it might slow down global worming. Moreover, Through the exploration of space, we have the potential of discovering new resources such as minerals that can have a major impact on improving quality of life on Earth. Space travel increases and drives the need for better technology such as smaller computers, digital equipment and new forms of fuels.
More reasons to push it forward, The use of space equipment like satellites help us to predict weather patterns and by doing this, it can help warn people before dangerous weather like tornadoes, tsunamis, earthquakes and hurricanes happen.
It is a very outrageous advance in human history to discover all the environments around us.


Disposing of the rubbish we produce every day is a major problem in cities around the world. In Britain, 85% of waste is disposed by landfill, a system which is supposed to prevent pollution, since waste is buried in the ground. This method is far from perfect; however, finding new areas is becoming difficult. Recycling is an increasingly popular way of getting rid of waste, and in Britain a target of recycling half of all domestic recyclable waste has been set for the coming years. A city that has solved its waste disposal problem in an unusual way is Machida, in Japan. They have developed a totally new approach to waste disposal. The key to the operation is public co-operation. Families must divide their rubbish into six categories.
rubbish that can be easily burnt (combustible), such as kitchen and garden waste.
non-combustible rubbish such as small electric appliances, plastic tools and plastic toys.
products that are toxic or that cause pollution, such as batteries.bottles and glass containers that can be recycled. large items such as furniture and bicycles.
The items in categories 1-5 are collected on different days; (large items are only collected on request.) Then the rubbish is taken to a centre that looks like a clean new office building or hospital. Inside, special equipment is used to sort and process the waste. Almost everything can be reused. Kitchen or garden waste becomes fertilizer; combustible items are burnt to produce electricity; containers and bottles are recycled and old furniture, clothing and other useful items are cleaned, repaired and resold cheaply or given away. The work provides employment for disabled people and gives them a chance to learn new skills. Nowadays, officials from cities around the world visit Machida to see whether they can use some of these ideas and techniques to solve their own waste disposal problems.


Many cities around the world today are heavily polluted. Careless manufacturing methods employed by some industries and absence of consumer demand for environmentally safe products have been behind the pollution problem. One result is that millions of tons of glass, paper, plastic and ****l containers are produced, and these are difficult to dispose of.
However, today more and more consumers are choosing ‘green’ and demanding that the products they buy are safe for the environment. Before they buy a product, they ask questions like these, Will this product damage the ozone layer?, Is this package of any danger to the environment? Or Can this ****l container be used once?
A recent study showed that two out of five adults now consider the Environmental safety of a product before they buy it. This means that companies must now change the way they make and sell their products to make sure that they are ‘green’, that is, friendly to the environment.
Only a few years ago, it was impossible to find green products in supermarkets, but now there are hundreds. Some supermarket products have tickets on them to show that the product is green. Some companies have made the manufacturing of clean and safe products their main selling point and insist on it in their advertising.
The concern of a safer and cleaner environment is making companies rethink how they do business. The public will no longer accept the old attitude of Buy it, Use it and then Throw it away.


The Internet is a worldwide, publicly accessible network of interconnected computer networks that transmit data by packet switching using the standard Internet Protocol (IP). It is a “network of networks” that consists of millions of smaller domestic, academic, business, and government networks, which together carry various information and services, such as electronic mail, online chat, file transfer, and the interlinked web pages and other of the world wide web. The USSR’s launch of Sputnik spurred the United States to create the Advanced Research Projects Agency, known as ARPA, in February 1958 to regain a technological lead.[1][2] ARPA created the Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) to further the research of the Semi Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) program, which had networked country-wide radar systems together for the first time. J. C. R. Licklider was selected to head the IPTO, and saw universal networking as a potential unifying human revolution.
Licklider had moved from the Psycho-Acoustic Laboratory at Harvard University to MIT in 1950, after becoming interested in information technology. At MIT, he served on a committee that established Lincoln Laboratory and worked on the SAGE project. In 1957 he became a Vice President at BBN, where he bought the first production PDP-1 computer and conducted the first public demonstration of time-sharing.
At the IPTO, Licklider recruited Lawrence Roberts to head a project to implement a network, and Roberts based the technology on the work of Paul Baran who had written an exhaustive study for the U.S. Air Force that recommended packet switching (as opposed to circuit switching) to make a network highly robust and survivable. After much work, the first node went live at UCLA on October 29, 1969 on what would be called the ARPANET, one of the “eve” networks of today’s Internet. Following on from this, the British Post Office, Western Union International and Tymnet collaborated to create the first international packet switched network, referred to as the International Packet Switched Service (IPSS), in 1978. This network grew from Europe and the US to cover Canada, Hong Kong and Australia by 1981.
The first TCP/IP-wide area network was operational by January 1, 1983, when the United States’ National Science Foundation (NSF) constructed a university network backbone that would later become the NSFNet.
It was then followed by the opening of the network to commercial interests in 1985. Important, separate networks that offered gateways into, then later merged with, the NSFNet include Usenet, BITNET and the various commercial and educational networks, such as X.25, Compuserve and JANET. Telenet (later called Sprintnet) was a large privately-funded national computer network with free dial-up access in cities throughout the U.S. that had been in operation since the 1970s. This network eventually merged with the others in the 1990s as the TCP/IP protocol became increasingly popular. The ability of TCP/IP to work over these pre-existing communication networks, especially the international X.25 IPSS network, allowed for a great ease of growth. Use of the term “Internet” to describe a single global TCP/IP network originated around this time.

Natural disaster:

Is the consequence of when a potential natural hazard becomes a physical event (e.g. volcanic eruption, earthquake, landslide) and this interacts with human activities. Human vulnerability, caused by the lack of planning, lack of appropriate emergency management or the event being unexpected, leads to financial, structural, and human losses. The resulting loss depends on the capacity of the population to support or resist the disaster, their resilience.This understanding is concentrated in the formulation: “disasters occur when hazards meet vulnerability”. A natural hazard will hence never result in a natural disaster in areas without vulnerability, e.g. strong earthquakes in uninhabited areas. The term natural has consequently been disputed because the events simply are not hazards or disasters without human involvement


WAR is one of the wost crime that pople have ever made to the humanity. that’s why we should know why some ediot poeple can’t stand leaving in peace becuase the best thing that can draw the smile on every one’s face is the peace. but in reality we have a deferent image to the world, we see that no one want to respect the right of other or want’s to enslave poeple or take there weals, and they make some silly reasons to get what they want exactly like what happend to our brothers in iraq.
war also creat a very bad destarction and ruin in everywhere.
and from the main point we can say that poepl in stean of burning world they have to to learn how to leave in peace and creat the happiness instead of hate and killing.


Television has became part of our every day life .what are its advantages and disadvantages On the one hand, TV has became the most influential means of the mass media because it has both sound and picture .it’s also the most popular source of information education and international , in brief TV brings the whole word to us.
One the other hand TV develops passive and lazy viewers .it also prevents communication between the members of the family besides students don’t their homwork and may became aggressive when they watch films of violence humour.
I think that the best things to relief from stress is to watch some sitcoms or hear something funny like jokes …person should develop his sense of humor and he should be cool , Comic and optimistic, because some expert of mental .health have noted that we can’t imagine going through a day without laughter.Humor will make every part of your life better.It will help you trough difficult times and it will help you make the good times even letter, also i twill attract good people and good situations to you

Human rights:

The concept of human rights has existed under several names in European thought for many centuries, at least since the time of King John of England. After the king violated a number of ancient laws and customs by which England had been governed, his subjects forced him to sign the Magna Carta, or Great Charter, which enumerates a number of what later came to be thought of as human rights. Among them were the right of the church to be free from governmental interference, the rights of all free citizens to own and inherit property and be free from excessive taxes. It established the right of widows who owned property to choose not to remarry, and established principles of due process and equality before the law. It also contained provisions forbidding bribery and official misconduct.
The political and religious traditions in other parts of the world also proclaimed what have come to be called human rights, calling on rulers to rule justly and compassionately, and delineating limits on their power over the lives, property, and activities of their citizens.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Europe several philosophers proposed the concept of “natural rights,” rights belonging to a person by nature and because he was a human being, not by virtue of his citizenship in a particular country or membership in a particular religious or ethnic group. This concept was vigorously debated and rejected by some philosophers as baseless. Others saw it as a formulation of the underlying principle on which all ideas of citizens’ rights and political and religious liberty were based.
In the late 1700s two revolutions occurred which drew heavily on this concept. In 1776 most of the British colonies in North America proclaimed their independence from the British Empire in a ******** which still stirs feelings, and debate, the U.S. Declaration of Independence.


Globalization refers to increasing global connectivity, integration and interdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural, political, and ecological spheres. Globalization is an umbrella term and is perhaps best understood as a unitary process inclusive of many sub-processes (such as enhanced economic interdependence, increased cultural influence, rapid advances of information technology, and novel governance and geopolitical challenges) that are increasingly binding people and the biosphere more tightly into one global system.
There are several definitions and all usually mention the increasing connectivity of economies and ways of life across the world. The Encyclopedia Britannica says that globalization is the “process by which the experience of everyday life … is becoming standardized around theworld.” While some scholars and observers of globalization stress convergence of patterns of production and consumption and a resulting homogenization of culture, others stress that globalization has the potential to take many diverse forms.


Racism or racialism is a form of race, especially the belief that one race is superior to another. Racism may be expressed individually and consciously, through explicit thoughts, feelings, or acts, or socially and unconsciously, through institutions that promote inequality between races.
In the 19th century many legitimized racist beliefs and practices through scientific theories about biological differences among races. Today, most scientists have rejected the biological basis of race or the validity of “race” as a scientific concept. Racism, then, becomes discrimination based on alleged race. Racists themselves usually do believe that humans are divided into different races.
There are two main definitions of racism today. One of them states that racism is dicrimination based on alleged race, the other – newer – one states that racism has started to include also discrimination based on religion or culture right of women
Nowadays we take it for granted that women have the same rights as men before the first world war few people believed this. As far as work was concerned there were jobs wich were regarded as women`s jobs and other wiche were regarded as men`s jobs. Women`s jobs were generally lower paid as men`s. Men did almost all the heavy jobs in industry or in transport. Women had jobs like dress-making,cleanning or worked as servants.
Women`s main role was as being to raise childeren and look for their home. Women were not expected to take position of leaderschip. Women were not even allowed to vote in elections.
Before the war some women had been struggling to achieve greater equality with men. The most famous of these had been the suffragettes who stagged a violent campaign against the govervment from 1905 to 1914 trying to achieve the right to vote.however, at the outbreak of war, the were still no near to success. Many men argued that women were unsuited to such responsibility that women could not be trusted to vote sensibly that women should not concern themselves with such male activities and voting.